Linux Administrator Certification 102

Course code:LXLP03

Duration: 5 Days / 40 Hours

This course teaches the second level of Administration tasks on Linux operating system and prepares to appear for the LPIC -1 Exam 102-400 from Linux Professional Institute. Linux having become most widely deployed in today’s emerging technologies, this course will help to understand the various administration tasks of Linux operating system and be able to apply that knowledge in a practical and useful manner. To become LPIC-1 certified, you must pass both the 101 and 102 exams. Demand for Linux professionals is consistently increasing due to its dominance in cloud computing and data centre installations and those with professional certifications are more likely to be hired.*


Those who have a need to perform basic administrative tasks on Linux operating system can attend this course. This course helps to pass their first level Linux administration certification from LPI.


Basic knowledge of any computing operating system and file systems is required.


To receive the LPIC -1 Exam 102-400 Certificate the candidate must:

  • Use Shells, write scripts and perform data management using SQL
  • Install user Interfaces and desktops
  • Perform essential system services
  • Perform networking administrative tasks
  • Perform security administrative tasks

Education Criteria

No specific education criteria is applicable

* Source:

105. Shells, Scripting and Data Management

105.1 Customize and use the shell environment

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet users’ needs. Candidates should be able to modify global and user profiles.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell

Write Bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands

Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts

Set command search path with the proper directory

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • source
  • /etc/bash.bashrc
  • /etc/profile
  • env
  • export
  • set
  • unset
  • ~/.bash_profile
  • ~/.bash_login
  • ~/.profile
  • ~/.bashrc
  • ~/.bash_logout
  • function
  • alias
  • lists

105.2 Customize or write simple scripts

Weight: 4

Description:Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new Bash scripts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests)

Use command substitution

Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command

Perform conditional mailing to the superuser

Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line

Manage the location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts

Terms and Utilities:

  • for
  • while
  • test
  • if
  • read
  • seq
  • exec

105.3 SQL data management

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to query databases and manipulate data using basic SQL commands. This objective includes performing queries involving joining of 2 tables and/or subselects.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Use of basic SQL commands

Perform basic data manipulation

Terms and Utilities:

  • insert
  • update
  • select
  • delete
  • from
  • where
  • group by
  • order by
  • join

106.  User Interfaces and Desktops

106.1 Install and configure X11

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure X11.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Verify that the video card and monitor are supported by an X server

Awareness of the X font server

Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • xhost
  • xwininfo
  • xdpyinfo
  • X

106.2 Setup a display manager

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to describe the basic features and configuration of the LightDM display manager. This objective covers awareness of the display managers XDM (X Display Manger), GDM (Gnome Display Manager) and KDM (KDE Display Manager).

Key Knowledge Areas:

Basic configuration of LightDM

Turn the display manager on or off

Change the display manager greeting

Awareness of XDM, KDM and GDM

Terms and Utilities:




106.3 Accessibility

Weight: 1

Description: Demonstrate knowledge and awareness of accessibility technologies.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Basic knowledge of keyboard accessibility settings (AccessX)

Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes

Basic knowledge of assistive technology (ATs)

Terms and Utilities:

  • Sticky/Repeat Keys
  • Slow/Bounce/Toggle Keys
  • Mouse Keys
  • High Contrast/Large Print Desktop Themes
  • Screen Reader
  • Braille Display
  • Screen Magnifier
  • On-Screen Keyboard
  • Gestures (used at login, for example GDM)
  • Orca
  • GOK
  • Emacspeak

107. Administrative Tasks

107.1 Manage user and group accounts and related system files

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Add, modify and remove users and groups

Manage user/group info in password/group databases

Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • /etc/group
  • /etc/skel/
  • chage
  • getent
  • groupadd
  • groupdel
  • groupmod
  • passwd
  • useradd
  • userdel
  • usermod

107.2 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to use cron or anacron to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Manage cron and at jobs

Configure user access to cron and at services

Configure anacron

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}/
  • /etc/at.deny
  • /etc/at.allow
  • /etc/crontab
  • /etc/cron.allow
  • /etc/cron.deny
  • /var/spool/cron/
  • crontab
  • at
  • atq
  • atrm
  • anacron
  • /etc/anacrontab

107.3 Localisation and internationalisation

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to localize a system in a different language than English. As well, an understanding of why LANG=C is useful when scripting.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Configure locale settings and environment variables

Configure timezone settings and environment variables

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/timezone
  • /etc/localtime
  • /usr/share/zoneinfo/
  • LC_*
  • LC_ALL
  • LANG
  • TZ
  • /usr/bin/locale
  • tzselect
  • timedatectl
  • date
  • iconv
  • UTF-8
  • ISO-8859
  • Unicode

108. Essential System Services

108.1 Maintain system time

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Set the system date and time

Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC

Configure the correct timezone

Basic NTP configuration

Knowledge of using the service

Awareness of the ntpq command

Terms and Utilities:

  • /usr/share/zoneinfo/
  • /etc/timezone
  • /etc/localtime
  • /etc/ntp.conf
  • date
  • hwclock
  • ntpd
  • ntpdate

108.2 System logging

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the syslog daemon. This objective also includes configuring the logging daemon to send log output to a central log server or accept log output as a central log server. Use of the systemd journal subsystem is covered. Also, awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng as alternative logging systems is included.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Configuration of the syslog daemon

Understanding of standard facilities, priorities and actions

Configuration of logrotate

Awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng

Terms and Utilities:

  • syslog.conf
  • syslogd
  • klogd
  • /var/log/
  • logger
  • logrotate
  • /etc/logrotate.conf
  • /etc/logrotate.d/
  • journalctl
  • /etc/systemd/journald.conf
  • /var/log/journal/

108.3 Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) basics

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be aware of the commonly available MTA programs and be able to perform basic forward and alias configuration on a client host. Other configuration files are not covered.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Create e-mail aliases

Configure e-mail forwarding

Knowledge of commonly available MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, qmail, exim) (no configuration)

Terms and Utilities:

  • ~/.forward
  • sendmail emulation layer commands
  • newaliases
  • mail
  • mailq
  • postfix
  • sendmail
  • exim
  • qmail

108.4 Manage printers and printing

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs using CUPS and the LPD compatibility interface.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers)

Manage user print queues

Troubleshoot general printing problems

Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues

Terms and Utilities:

  • CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
  • /etc/cups/
  • lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)


109. Networking Fundamentals

109.1 Fundamentals of internet protocols

Weight: 4

Description:Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of TCP/IP network fundamentals.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation

Knowledge of the differences between private and public “dotted quad” IP addresses

Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports and services (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995)

Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP

Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6

Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/services
  • IPv4, IPv6
  • Subnetting

109.2 Basic network configuration

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to view, change and verify configuration settings on client hosts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Manually and automatically configure network interfaces

Basic TCP/IP host configuration

Setting a default route

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/hostname
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf
  • ifconfig
  • ifup
  • ifdown
  • ip
  • route
  • ping

109.3 Basic network troubleshooting

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to troubleshoot networking issues on client hosts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Manually and automatically configure network interfaces and routing tables to include adding, starting, stopping, restarting, deleting or reconfiguring network interfaces

Change, view, or configure the routing table and correct an improperly set default route manually

Debug problems associated with the network configuration

Terms and Utilities:

  • ifconfig
  • ip
  • ifup
  • ifdown
  • route
  • host
  • hostname
  • dig
  • netstat
  • ping
  • ping6
  • traceroute
  • traceroute6
  • tracepath
  • tracepath6
  • netcat

109.4 Configure client side DNS

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure DNS on a client host.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Query remote DNS servers

Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers

Modify the order in which name resolution is done

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf
  • host
  • dig
  • getent

110. Security

110.1 Perform security administration tasks

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set

Set or change user passwords and password aging information

Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system

Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage

Determine which users have logged in to the system or are currently logged in

Basic sudo configuration and usage

Terms and Utilities:

  • find
  • passwd
  • fuser
  • lsof
  • nmap
  • chage
  • netstat
  • sudo
  • /etc/sudoers
  • su
  • usermod
  • ulimit
  • who, w, last

110.2 Setup host security

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work

Turn off network services not in use

Understand the role of TCP wrappers

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/nologin
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • /etc/xinetd.d/
  • /etc/xinetd.conf
  • /etc/inetd.d/
  • /etc/inetd.conf
  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/init.d/
  • /etc/hosts.allow
  • /etc/hosts.deny

110.3 Securing data with encryption



Description: The candidate should be able to use public key techniques to secure data and communication.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Perform basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage

Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys

Perform basic GnuPG configuration, usage and revocation

Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels)

Terms and Utilities:

  • ssh
  • ssh-keygen
  • ssh-agent
  • ssh-add
  • ~/.ssh/id_rsa and
  • ~/.ssh/id_dsa and
  • /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key and
  • /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key and
  • ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  • ssh_known_hosts
  • gpg
  • ~/.gnupg/

Course review

Exam preparation

Practice exam